> 학술대회 > 2018 KPS Fall Meetng > Plenary Talk

Plenary Talk

<2018 KPS PLENARY TALK>
 
 Plenary 1 

H. Eugene Stanley
William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor, Department of Physics, Boston University
 
Time:  1 pm, Oct 24 (Wed) 

유진 스탠리 교수는 통계물리 분야의 대표적인 이론물리학자일 뿐 아니라, 타 학문과의 학제간 연구로 물리학의 지평을 넓힌 학자이다. 상전이 현상을 중심으로 다양한 통계물리의 난제를 풀었는데, 특히 액체-액체 임계점을 비롯한 물의 특이한 성질에 많은 업적을 남겼다. 또한 경제물리를 비롯하여 생물물리 등의 분야를 개척하고 연구하며, 물리 교육과 젠더에도 많은 관심을 기울이고 활발한 활동을 하고 있다. 2004년 통계물리 분야 최고 권위의 상인 Botzmann Medal을 수상하였다.

[H. Eugene Stanley is a theoretical physicist who made seminal contribution to statistical physics and a pioneer to open horizons of interdisciplinary study. His major research topic is phase transitions, percolation, disordered systems and liquid water, particularly liquid-liquid critical point. His contribution spans to inauguration of econophysics, and complex systems including biophysics. He is very active in education at all levels and achieving gender balance in physical science. He was awarded Botzmann Medal in 2004.] 

 
Education
B.A., Physics, 1962, Wesleyan University, USA
Ph.D., Physics, 1967, Harvard University, USA
 
Employment 
1968-69, Miller Fellow, University of California, Berkeley, USA
1969-1976, Herman von Helmholtz Professor, MIT, USA 
1976-present, William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor, Boston University, USA
 
Honors and Awards
1974, Fellow, American Physical Society
1994, Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
2004, Member, National Academy of Sciences
2004, Boltzmann Medal, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) 

Abstract

Are organizing principles from physics of relevance to economic and social sciences?

Recent analysis of truly huge quantities of empirical data suggests that classic economic theories not only fail for a few outliers, but that there occur similar outliers of every possible size. Specifically, if we analyze only a small data set (say 104 data points), then outliers appear to occur as “rare events.” However, when we analyze four orders of magnitude more data (108 data points), we find four orders of magnitude more outliers—so ignoring them is not a responsible option, and quantifying the statistical properties of outliers becomes feasible. We find that the statistical properties of these “outliers” are identical to the statistical properties of everyday fluctuations.
Two unifying principles that underlie much of the finance analysis we will present are scale invariance and universality. Scale invariance is a property not about algebraic equations but rather about functional equations, which have as their solutions not numbers but rather functional forms—e.g., the solution of the functional equation f(λx) = λpf(x) is f(x) = xp. The key idea of universality is that the identical set of “scaling laws” hold across diverse markets, and over diverse time periods.
We demonstrate the principles of scaling and universality by describing very recent work. Financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings on very short time scales, with increasing “microtrends” and decreasing “microtrends”. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching processes have quantifiable features analogous to those present in phase transitions, and find striking scale-free behavior of the time intervals between transactions both before and after the switching occurs. 
Recent disasters ranging from financial “shocks” to large-scale terrorist attacks dramatically exemplify the fact that the most dangerous vulnerability is hiding in the many interdependencies among different networks. We have uncovered new empirical laws governing the nature of switching phenomena in coupled networks, and find that phenomena that are continuous “second order” phase transitions in isolated networks become discontinuous abrupt “first order” transitions in interdependent networks. We find that the same laws governing the formation and bursting of the largest financial bubbles also govern the tiniest finance fluctuations, over a factor of 1,000,000,000 in scale.
This work was carried out in collaboration with a number of colleagues, most notably S. Havlin, S. V. Buldyrev, T. Preis, and S. Moat.

 Plenary 2 

Hiroshi Amano
Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Japan
 
Time:  1 pm, Oct 25 (Thu) 

히로시 아마노(Hiroshi Amano) 박사는 질화물(nitride) 반도체의 성장, 성질 결정, 그리고 소자 응용 분야의 세계적인 전문가이다. 특히 아카사키 이사무와 함께 세계 최초로 청색 LED에 필요한 고품질 질화물 반도체 결정 기술을 개발하였다. 연구 업적으로 2014년에 아카사키 이사무, 나카무라 슈지와 함께 노벨 물리학상을 공동 수상하였다.

[Dr. Hiroshi Amano is a world-leading expert in the growth, characterization, and device application of nitride semiconductors. In collaboration with Isamu Akasaki, he achieved a breakthrough in creating efficient blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) by developing an effective method of growing gallium nitride on a sapphire substrate. For this work, he was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Isamu Akasaki and Shuji Nakamura for “the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”.] 

 
Education
B.E.: Nagoya University (1983) 
M.E: Eng., Nagoya University (1985) 
Dr. Eng.: Nagoya University (1989)
 
Appointments
Assistant Professor, School of Science and Technology, Meijo University (1992-1998)
Associate Professor, School of Science and Technology, Meijo University (1998-2002)
Professor, School of Science and Technology, Meijo University (2002-2010)
Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University (2010-2015)
Director, Center for Integrated Research of Future Electronics (CIRFE), Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability (IMaSS), Nagoya University (2015-Present) 
 
Honors and Awards
2014 Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Foundation, Sweden
2014 Order of Culture, the Japanese Emperor, Japan
2015 Achievement Award (Isamu Akasaki Award), The Japanese Association for Crystal Growth, Japan
and many more

Abstract

Transformative Electronics for Realizing Sustainable and Smart Society 

In the 2020s, nitride semiconductors such as BN, AlN, GaN, InN, and their alloys and heterostructures, are expected to play a key role in realizing next-generation personal information systems and social infrastructures. By 2020, more than 70% of general lighting systems in Japan, traditionally based on conventional incandescent lamps or fluorescent lamps, will have been replaced with LED lamps, by which the total electricity consumption can be reduced by about 7% in Japan. 
Nitride semiconductors are thought to be the only semiconducting materials that can be used in high power microwave and mm-wave devices, which will be employed in next-generation ultra-broadband 5G wireless communication systems. The energy loss of all electric power circuits such as inverters and converters can be reduced to one-tenth by replacing Si-based MOSFETs and IGBTs with GaN-based transistors and diodes. In future, many everyday objects are likely to be connected to the Internet, referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT). A concern about the IoT is the possibility of each system running out of battery power. If we can connect objects to achieve communication and energy transmission wirelessly regardless of the time and place, this concern can be addressed and we can realize a sustainable smart society. Therefore, realizing the Internet of Energy (IoE) is the first priority in achieving an IoT society. In future, the mobility of humans, such as by vehicles and airplanes, will be increasingly driven by electricity. In order that electric vehicles and airplanes can replace conventional vehicles, in addition to safe and large-capacity batteries, wireless energy transmission systems are essential. For next-generation wireless energy transmission devices it is necessary to realize both high-power and high-frequency operation. 
To realize such novel devices and systems, we are trying to develop an open innovation platform. Details of our new space, “Center for Integrated Research of Future Electronics (CIRFE) Transformative Electronics Facilities and Commons”, known as C-TEFs and C-TECs, will be explained.